The objective of this project was to provide a concise and impartial view of the major developments in academic, institutional and industrial laboratories in Europe, USA and elsewhere working on biomarkers for monitoring human exposure to chemicals. The research into chemical-specific biomarkers for occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals aims to develop and validate biomarkers that reflect specific exposures and permit the prediction of the risk of disease. This project identified the most significant developments in the areas of new and existing biomarkers, analytical methodologies, validation studies in laboratories and field trials together with the procedures in place for auditing and quality assessment of data. A comprehensive review of the published literature in the field of biomarkers of human exposure to chemicals was carried out and published. The current views of practitioners working in the field were sought to judge the likely future directions of research and applications of biomarkers for monitoring human exposure, ethical issues and the handling of generated data and its application in risk assessments.
WP Watson, A Mutti, Role of biomarkers in monitoring exposures to chemicals: present position, future prospects, Biomarkers 2004, 9, 211-242.